Pigmentary dispersion syndrome is a condition in which increased amounts of pigment circulate within the front portion of the eye. This often results in having pigment layered on the back of the cornea, thinning of the iris, and clogging of the ocular drainage system with pigment. This pigment can block the drainage channel enough to cause an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP).
In cases of pigmentary glaucoma, the IOP often is very high, reaching levels above 40 mm Hg. Pigmentary dispersion leads to damage from glaucoma in 20% to 50% of patients. It is more common in males and often appears in people under 50 years of age.
Treatment is the same as for other forms of open-angle glaucoma, including medications, laser therapy, or surgery. With adequate treatment, the prognosis for pigmentary glaucoma is good.